Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Quick description of the document

This document is a quick workflow describing how to use our R package MultiRNAflow on one dataset (see Dataset used as example). For a more complete description of our package and complete outputs with graphs, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".

1.2 Dataset used as example

The Mouse dataset 2 (Weger et al. 2021) is accessible on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with the accession number GSE135898.

This dataset contains the temporal transcription profile of 16 mice with Bmal1 and Cry1/2 knocked-down under an ad libitum (AL) or night restricted feeding (RF) regimen. Data were collected at 0, 4h, 8h, 16, 20h and 24h. Therefore, there are six time points and eight biological conditions. As there are only two mice per biological condition, we decided not to take into account the effect of the regimen. The dataset contains temporal expression data of 40327 genes.

To illustrate the use of our package, we take 500 genes, over the global 40327 genes in the original dataset. This sub dataset is saved in the file RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500.

2 Quick workflow

2.1 Load package, example dataset and preamble

  1. Load MultiRNAflow
library(MultiRNAflow)
  1. Load Mouse dataset 2
data("RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500")
  1. Structure of the dataset (Preamble)

The dataset must be a data.frame containing raw counts data. If it is not the case, the functions DATAnormalization() and DEanalysisGlobal() will stop and print an error. Each line should correspond to a gene, each column to a sample, except a particular column that may contain strings of characters describing the names of the genes. The first line of the data.frame should contain the names of the columns (strings of characters) that must have the following structure.

head(colnames(RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500), n=5)
#> [1] "Gene"       "BmKo_t1_r1" "BmKo_t2_r1" "BmKo_t0_r1" "BmKo_t3_r1"

In this example, “Gene” indicates the column which contains the names of the different genes. The other column names contain all kind of information about the sample, including the biological condition, the time of measurement and the name of the individual (e.g patient, replicate, mouse, yeasts culture…). Other kinds of information can be stored in the column names (such as patient information), but they will not be used by the package. The various information in the column names must be separated by underscores. The order of these information is arbitrary but must be the same for all columns. For instance, the sample “BmKo_t0_r1” corresponds to the first replicate (r1) of the biological condition BmKo at time t0 (reference time).

The information located to the left of the first underscore will be considered to be in position 1, the information located between the first underscore and the second one will be considered to be in position 2, and so on. In the previous example, the biological condition is in position 1, the time is in position 2 and the replicate is in position 3. In most of the functions of our package, the order of the previous information in the column names will be indicated with the inputs Group.position, Time.position and Individual.position. Similarly the input Column.gene will indicate the number of the column containing gene names.

2.2 Preprocessing

  1. Preprocessing with DATAprepSE()
resDATAprepSE <- DATAprepSE(RawCounts=RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500,
                            Column.gene=1,
                            Group.position=1,
                            Time.position=2,
                            Individual.position=3)
  • Output: The function realizes the normalization step and returns a SummarizeExperiment object containing
    • all information about the raw counts data
    • a DESeqDataSet object to be used by the function DEanalysisGlobal for the statistical (supervised) analysis.
  • Input:
    • The dataset must be RNA-seq raw counts (RawCounts)
    • The argument Column.gene=1 means that the first column of the dataset contain genes name, Time.position=2 means that the time of measurements is between the first and the second underscores in the columns names, Individual.position=3 means that the name of the individual is between the second and the third underscores in the columns names and Group.position=NULL means that there is only one biological condition in the dataset. Similarly, Time.position=NULL would mean that there is only one time of measurement for each individual and Column.gene=NULL would mean that there is no column containing gene names.
  • Other:
    • Write ?DATAprepSE in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled “MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf”.

2.3 Exploratory data analysis

  1. Normalization with DATAnormalization()
resNorm <- DATAnormalization(SEres=resDATAprepSE,
                             Normalization="vst",
                             Blind.rlog.vst=FALSE,
                             Plot.Boxplot=FALSE,
                             Colored.By.Factors=TRUE,
                             Color.Group=NULL,
                             path.result=NULL)
  • Output: The function realizes the normalization step and
    • returns the same SummarizedExperiment class object resDATAprepSE but with the normalized data
    • plots a boxplot (if Plot.Boxplot=TRUE) showing the distribution of the normalized expression (Normalization="vst" means that the vst method is used) of genes for each sample.
  • Input:
    • The results of the function DATAprepSE().
    • In order to display the output graph, set Plot.Boxplot=TRUE.
    • If Colored.By.Factors=TRUE, the color of the boxplots would be different for different biological conditions.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
  • Other:
    • Write ?DATAnormalization in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled “MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf”.
  1. Principal component analysis (PCA) with PCAanalysis()
resPCA <- PCAanalysis(SEresNorm=resNorm,
                      DATAnorm=TRUE,
                      gene.deletion=NULL,
                      sample.deletion=NULL,
                      Supp.del.sample=FALSE,
                      Plot.PCA=FALSE,
                      Mean.Accross.Time=FALSE,
                      Color.Group=NULL,
                      Cex.label=0.6,
                      Cex.point=0.7, epsilon=0.2,
                      Phi=25,Theta=140,
                      D3.mouvement=FALSE,
                      path.result=NULL)
  • Output: When samples belong to different biological conditions and different time points, the previous lines of code return
    • the same SummarizedExperiment class object resNorm but with the results of the function PCA() of the package FactoMineR.
    • One 2D PCA graph, one 3D PCA graph and the same 3D PCA graph in a rgl window (only if D3.mouvement=FALSE) where samples are colored with different colors for different biological conditions. Furthermore, lines are drawn between each pair of consecutive points for each sample (if Mean.Accross.Time=FALSE, otherwise it will be only between means).
    • One 2D PCA graph, one 3D PCA graph and the same 3D PCA graph in a rgl window (only if D3.mouvement=FALSE) for each biological condition, where samples are colored with different colors for different time points. Furthermore, lines are drawn between each pair of consecutive points for each sample (if Mean.Accross.Time=FALSE, otherwise it will be only between means).
    • The same graphs describe above but without lines.
  • Input:
    • The results of the function DATAnormalization().
    • We recommend the use of the normalized data (DATAnorm=TRUE) for the PCA analysis.
    • By default (if Color.Group=NULL), a color will be automatically applied for each biological condition. If you want to change the colors, read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
    • If you want to delete, for instance, the genes ’ENSMUSG00000025921’ and ’ENSMUSG00000026113’ (respectively the second and sixth gene) and/or delete the samples ‘BmKo_t2_r1’ and ‘BmKo_t5_r2’, set
      • gene.deletion=c("ENSMUSG00000025921", "ENSMUSG00000026113") and/or sample.deletion=c("BmKo_t2_r1", "BmKo_t5_r2")
      • gene.deletion=c(2,6) and/or sample.deletion=c(3,13). The integers in gene.deletion and sample.deletion represent respectively the row numbers and the column numbers of ExprData where the selected genes and samples are located.
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Plot.PCA=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
  • Other:
    • Write ?PCAanalysis in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled “MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf”.
  1. Hierarchical Clustering on Principle Components (HCPC) with HCPCanalysis()
resHCPC <- HCPCanalysis(SEresNorm=resNorm,
                        DATAnorm=TRUE,
                        gene.deletion=NULL,
                        sample.deletion=NULL,
                        Supp.del.sample=FALSE,
                        Plot.HCPC=FALSE,
                        Phi=25,Theta=140,
                        Cex.point=0.6,
                        epsilon=0.2,
                        Cex.label=0.6,
                        D3.mouvement=FALSE,
                        path.result=NULL)
  • Output:
    • the same SummarizedExperiment class object resNorm but with the results of the function HCPCanalysis() of the package FactoMineR
    • A dendrogram to illustrate how each cluster is composed
    • A graph indicating by color for each sample, its cluster, the biological condition and the time point associated to the sample.
    • One 2D PCA graph, one 3D PCA graph and the same 3D PCA graph in a rgl window (only if D3.mouvement=FALSE). These PCA graphs are identical to the outputs of PCAanalysis() with all samples but samples are colored with different colors for different clusters.
  • Input:
    • The results of the function DATAnormalization().
    • We recommend the use of the normalized data (DATAnorm=TRUE) for the HCPC analysis.
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Plot.HCPC=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
  • Other:
    • The optimal number of clusters is automatically computed by the R function HCPC().
    • Write ?HCPCanalysis in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled “MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf”.
  1. Temporal clustering analysis with MFUZZanalysis().
resMFUZZ <- MFUZZanalysis(SEresNorm=resNorm,
                          DATAnorm=TRUE,
                          DataNumberCluster=NULL,
                          Method="hcpc",
                          Membership=0.5,
                          Min.std=0.1,
                          Plot.Mfuzz=FALSE,
                          path.result=NULL)
  • Output:
    • the same SummarizedExperiment class object resNorm but with
      • The summary of the results of the function mfuzz()
      • The number of clusters automatically computed (if DataNumberCluster=NULL). If Method="hcpc", the function plots the scaled within-cluster inertia, but if Method="kmeans", the function plots the scaled within-cluster inertia. As the number of genes can be very high, we recommend to select Method="hcpc" which is by default.
    • the output graph from the function mfuzz() which represents the most common temporal behavior among all genes for the biological condition ‘BmKo’.
  • Input:
    • The results of the function DATAnormalization().
    • We recommend the use of the normalized data (DATAnorm=TRUE) for the clustering analysis.
    • For each cluster, genes with membership values below the threshold Membership (numeric value between 0 and 1) will not be displayed. The membership values correspond to the probability of gene to belong to each cluster.
    • All genes where their standard deviations are smaller than the threshold Min.std (numeric positive value) will be excluded.
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Plot.Mfuzz=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
  • Other:
    • Write ?MFUZZanalysis in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled “MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf”.
  1. Plot temporal expression with with DATAplotExpressionGenes()
resEXPR <- DATAplotExpressionGenes(SEresNorm=resNorm,
                                   DATAnorm=TRUE,
                                   Vector.row.gene=c(17),
                                   Color.Group=NULL,
                                   Plot.Expression=FALSE,
                                   path.result=NULL)
  • Output: A graph plotting for each biological condition: the evolution of the 17th gene expression of the three replicates across time and the evolution of the mean and the standard deviation of the 17th gene expression across time. The color of the different lines are different for different biological conditions.
  • Input:
    • The results of the function DATAnormalization().
    • We recommend the use of the normalized data (DATAnorm=TRUE).
    • If the user wants to select several genes, for instance the 97th, the 192th, the 194th and the 494th, he needs to set Vector.row.gene=c(97,192,194,494).
    • By default (if Color.Group=NULL), a color will be automatically applied for each biological condition. If you want to change the colors, read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Plot.Expression=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
  • Other:
    • Write ?DATAplotExpressionGenes in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".

2.4 Supervised statistical analysis

  1. Differential Expresion (DE) analysis with DEanalysisGlobal()

For the speed of the algorithm, we will take only three biological conditions and three times

Sub3bc3T <- RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500
Sub3bc3T <- Sub3bc3T[, seq_len(73)]
SelectTime <- grep("_t0_", colnames(Sub3bc3T))
SelectTime <- c(SelectTime, grep("_t1_", colnames(Sub3bc3T)))
SelectTime <- c(SelectTime, grep("_t2_", colnames(Sub3bc3T)))
Sub3bc3T <- Sub3bc3T[, c(1, SelectTime)]

resSEsub <- DATAprepSE(RawCounts=Sub3bc3T,
                       Column.gene=1,
                       Group.position=1,
                       Time.position=2,
                       Individual.position=3)
resDE <- DEanalysisGlobal(SEres=resSEsub,
                          pval.min=0.05,
                          log.FC.min=1,
                          Plot.DE.graph=FALSE,
                          path.result=NULL)
#> [1] "Preprocessing"
#> [1] "Differential expression step with DESeq2::DESeq()"
#> [1] "Case 3 analysis : Biological conditions and Times."
#> [1] "DE time analysis for each biological condition."
#> [1] "DE group analysis for each time measurement."
#> [1] "Combined time and group results."
  • Output:
    • The results of the function DESeq()
    • a data.frame (output Results) which contains
      • gene names
      • pvalues, log2 fold change and DE genes between each pairs of biological conditions for each fixed time.
      • pvalues, log2 fold change and DE genes between each time versus the reference time t0 for each biological condition.
      • Temporal pattern (succession of 0 and 1) for each biological condition. The positions of 1 in one of these two columns, indicate the set of times ti such that the gene is DE between ti and the reference time t0, for the biological condition associated to the given column.
      • Specific genes for each biological condition at each time. A 1 in one of these columns means the gene is specific to the biological condition at a fixed time associated to the given column. 0 otherwise. A gene is called specific to a given biological condition BC1 at a time ti, if the gene is DE between BC1 and any other biological conditions at time ti, but not DE between any pair of other biological conditions at time ti.
      • Signature genes the signatures genes for each biological condition at each time. A 1 in one of these columns means the gene is signature gene to the biological condition at a fixed time associated to the given column. 0 otherwise. A gene is called signature of a biological condition BC1 at a given time ti, if the gene is specific to the biological condition BC1 at time ti and DE between ti versus the reference time t0 for the biological condition BC1.
    • the following plots from the temporal statistical analysis
      • a barplot which gives the number of DE genes between ti and the reference time t0, for each time ti (except the reference time t0) and biological condition.
      • alluvial graphs of DE genes, one per biological condition.
      • \(N_{bc}\) graphs showing the number of DE genes as a function of time for each temporal group, one per biological condition. By temporal group, we mean the sets of genes which are first DE at the same time.
      • \(2\times N_{bc}\) UpSet plot showing the number of DE genes belonging to each DE temporal pattern, for each biological condition. By temporal pattern, we mean the set of times ti such that the gene is DE between ti and the reference time t0 (see DEplotVennBarplotTime()).
      • an alluvial graph for DE genes which are DE at least one time for each group.
    • the following plots from the statistical analysis by biological condition
      • a barplot which gives the number of specific DE genes for each biological condition and time (see DEplotBarplotFacetGrid()).
      • \(N_{bc}(N_{bc}-1)/2\) UpSet plot which give the number of genes for each possible intersection (set of pairs of biological conditions), one per time (see DEplotVennBarplotGroup()).
      • an alluvial graph of genes which are specific at least one time (see DEplotAlluvial()).
    • the following plots from the combination of temporal and biological statistical analysis
      • a barplot which gives the number of signature genes for each biological condition and time (see DEplotBarplotFacetGrid()).
      • a barplot showing the number of genes which are DE at at least one time, specific at at least one time and signature at at least one time, for each biological condition.
      • an alluvial graph of genes which are signature at least one time (see DEplotAlluvial()).
  • Input:
    • A gene is considered as DE if the pvalue associated to the gene is inferior to pval.min (numeric value between 0 and 1) and if the absolute log fold change associated to the gene is superior to log.FC.min (numeric positive value).
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Plot.DE.graph=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, select a folder path in path.result.
    • Set RawCounts=RawCounts_Weger2021_MOUSEsub500 in order to use the complete dataset.
  • Other:
    • Write ?DEanalysisGlobal in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
  1. Volcano and ratio intensity (MA) plots with DEplotVolcanoMA()
resMAvolcano <- DEplotVolcanoMA(SEresDE=resDE,
                                NbGene.plotted=2,
                                SizeLabel=3,
                                Display.plots=FALSE,
                                Save.plots=FALSE)
  • Output: The function returns Volcano plots and MA plots from the results of our function DEanalysisGlobal().
  • Input:
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Display.plots=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, set Save.plots=TRUE and and a folder path in the input path.result in the function DEanalysisGlobal().
  • Other:
    • Write ?DEplotVolcanoMA in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
  1. Heatmaps with DEplotHeatmaps()
resHEAT <- DEplotHeatmaps(SEresDE=resDE,
                          ColumnsCriteria=2,
                          Set.Operation="union",
                          NbGene.analysis=20,
                          SizeLabelRows=5,
                          SizeLabelCols=5,
                          Display.plots=FALSE,
                          Save.plots=TRUE)
  • Output: The function returns two heatmaps: one heatmap of gene expressions between samples and selected genes; and a correlation heatmap between samples.
  • Input:
    • If Set.Operation="union" then the rows extracted from the different datasets included in SEresDE are those such that the sum of the selected columns of SummarizedExperiment::rowData(SEresDE) by ColumnsCriteria is >0. For example, the selected genes can be those DE at least at t1 or t2 (versus the reference time t0).
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Display.plots=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, set Save.plots=TRUE and and a folder path in the input path.result in the function DEanalysisGlobal().
  • Other:
    • Write ?DEplotHeatmaps in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
  1. GO enrichment analysis with GSEAQuickAnalysis() and GSEApreprocessing()
resRgprofiler2 <- GSEAQuickAnalysis(Internect.Connection=FALSE,
                                    SEresDE=resDE,
                                    ColumnsCriteria=2,
                                    ColumnsLog2ordered=NULL,
                                    Set.Operation="union",
                                    Organism="mmusculus",
                                    MaxNumberGO=20,
                                    Background=FALSE,
                                    Display.plots=FALSE,
                                    Save.plots=TRUE)
  • Output: The function realizes, from the outputs of DEanalysisGlobal(), an enrichment analysis (GSEA) of a subset of genes with the R package gprofiler2.
    • A data.frame which contains the outputs of gprofiler2::gost()
    • A Manhattan plot showing all GO names according to their pvalue.
    • A lollipop graph showing the MaxNumberGO most important GO.
  • Input:
    • If Set.Operation="union" then the rows extracted from the different datasets included in SEresDE are those such that the sum of the selected columns of SummarizedExperiment::rowData(SEresDE) by ColumnsCriteria is >0. For example, the selected genes can be those DE at least at t1 or t2 (versus the reference time t0).
    • In order to display the different output graph, set Display.plots=TRUE.
    • In order to save the different results in a folder, set Save.plots=TRUE and a folder path in the input path.result in the function DEanalysisGlobal().
  • Other:
    • Write ?GSEAQuickAnalysis in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".
resGSEApreprocess <- GSEApreprocessing(SEresDE=resDE,
                                       ColumnsCriteria=2,
                                       Set.Operation="union",
                                       Rnk.files=FALSE,
                                       Save.files=FALSE)
  • Output:
    • A vector of character containing gene names specified by ColumnsCriteria and Set.Operation.
    • A vector of character containing all gene names
    • And, in case where Save.files=TRUE and the path.result of DEanalysisGlobal() is not NULL, specific files designed to be used as input for the following online tools and software : GSEA, DAVID, WebGestalt, gProfiler, Panther, ShinyGO, Enrichr, GOrilla
  • Input: If Set.Operation="union" then the rows extracted from the different datasets included in SEresDE are those such that the sum of the selected columns of SummarizedExperiment::rowData(SEresDE) by ColumnsCriteria is >0. For example, the selected genes can be those DE at least at t1 or t2 (versus the reference time t0).
  • Other:
    • Write ?GSEApreprocessing in your console for more information about the function.
    • For a more complete description of the function and package, the user must read our pdf file entitled ’MultiRNAflow_vignette-knitr.pdf".

3 SessionInfo

Here is the output of sessionInfo() on the system on which this document was compiled.

sessionInfo()
#> R Under development (unstable) (2023-10-22 r85388)
#> Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
#> Running under: Ubuntu 22.04.3 LTS
#> 
#> Matrix products: default
#> BLAS:   /home/biocbuild/bbs-3.19-bioc/R/lib/libRblas.so 
#> LAPACK: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/lapack/liblapack.so.3.10.0
#> 
#> locale:
#>  [1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NUMERIC=C              
#>  [3] LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8        LC_COLLATE=en_US.UTF-8    
#>  [5] LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8    LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8   
#>  [7] LC_PAPER=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NAME=C                 
#>  [9] LC_ADDRESS=C               LC_TELEPHONE=C            
#> [11] LC_MEASUREMENT=en_US.UTF-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C       
#> 
#> time zone: America/New_York
#> tzcode source: system (glibc)
#> 
#> attached base packages:
#> [1] tcltk     stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods  
#> [8] base     
#> 
#> other attached packages:
#>  [1] DESeq2_1.43.0               SummarizedExperiment_1.33.0
#>  [3] GenomicRanges_1.55.0        IRanges_2.37.0             
#>  [5] S4Vectors_0.41.0            MultiRNAflow_1.1.0         
#>  [7] Mfuzz_2.63.0                DynDoc_1.81.0              
#>  [9] widgetTools_1.81.0          e1071_1.7-13               
#> [11] Biobase_2.63.0              BiocGenerics_0.49.0        
#> [13] BiocStyle_2.31.0           
#> 
#> loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
#>   [1] RColorBrewer_1.1-3      jsonlite_1.8.7          shape_1.4.6            
#>   [4] magrittr_2.0.3          magick_2.8.1            TH.data_1.1-2          
#>   [7] estimability_1.4.1      farver_2.1.1            rmarkdown_2.25         
#>  [10] GlobalOptions_0.1.2     zlibbioc_1.49.0         vctrs_0.6.4            
#>  [13] Cairo_1.6-1             RCurl_1.98-1.12         base64enc_0.1-3        
#>  [16] htmltools_0.5.6.1       S4Arrays_1.3.0          SparseArray_1.3.0      
#>  [19] sass_0.4.7              bslib_0.5.1             htmlwidgets_1.6.2      
#>  [22] plyr_1.8.9              sandwich_3.0-2          emmeans_1.8.9          
#>  [25] plotly_4.10.3           zoo_1.8-12              cachem_1.0.8           
#>  [28] misc3d_0.9-1            lifecycle_1.0.3         iterators_1.0.14       
#>  [31] pkgconfig_2.0.3         Matrix_1.6-1.1          R6_2.5.1               
#>  [34] fastmap_1.1.1           GenomeInfoDbData_1.2.11 MatrixGenerics_1.15.0  
#>  [37] clue_0.3-65             digest_0.6.33           colorspace_2.1-0       
#>  [40] labeling_0.4.3          fansi_1.0.5             httr_1.4.7             
#>  [43] abind_1.4-5             compiler_4.4.0          proxy_0.4-27           
#>  [46] withr_2.5.1             doParallel_1.0.17       BiocParallel_1.37.0    
#>  [49] UpSetR_1.4.0            Rttf2pt1_1.3.12         MASS_7.3-60.1          
#>  [52] tkWidgets_1.81.0        DelayedArray_0.29.0     rjson_0.2.21           
#>  [55] scatterplot3d_0.3-44    ggsci_3.0.0             flashClust_1.01-2      
#>  [58] tools_4.4.0             extrafontdb_1.0         FactoMineR_2.9         
#>  [61] glue_1.6.2              grid_4.4.0              cluster_2.1.4          
#>  [64] reshape2_1.4.4          generics_0.1.3          gtable_0.3.4           
#>  [67] class_7.3-22            tidyr_1.3.0             data.table_1.14.8      
#>  [70] utf8_1.2.4              XVector_0.43.0          stringr_1.5.0          
#>  [73] ggrepel_0.9.4           foreach_1.5.2           pillar_1.9.0           
#>  [76] circlize_0.4.15         splines_4.4.0           dplyr_1.1.3            
#>  [79] lattice_0.22-5          survival_3.5-7          tidyselect_1.2.0       
#>  [82] ComplexHeatmap_2.19.0   locfit_1.5-9.8          knitr_1.44             
#>  [85] gridExtra_2.3           bookdown_0.36           stats4_4.4.0           
#>  [88] xfun_0.40               plot3Drgl_1.0.4         factoextra_1.0.7       
#>  [91] matrixStats_1.0.0       DT_0.30                 stringi_1.7.12         
#>  [94] lazyeval_0.2.2          yaml_2.3.7              evaluate_0.22          
#>  [97] codetools_0.2-19        extrafont_0.19          tibble_3.2.1           
#> [100] BiocManager_1.30.22     multcompView_0.1-9      cli_3.6.1              
#> [103] xtable_1.8-4            munsell_0.5.0           jquerylib_0.1.4        
#> [106] Rcpp_1.0.11             GenomeInfoDb_1.39.0     gprofiler2_0.2.2       
#> [109] coda_0.19-4             png_0.1-8               parallel_4.4.0         
#> [112] leaps_3.1               rgl_1.2.1               ggplot2_3.4.4          
#> [115] ggalluvial_0.12.5       bitops_1.0-7            viridisLite_0.4.2      
#> [118] mvtnorm_1.2-3           plot3D_1.4              scales_1.2.1           
#> [121] purrr_1.0.2             crayon_1.5.2            GetoptLong_1.0.5       
#> [124] rlang_1.1.1             multcomp_1.4-25

Weger, Benjamin D., Cédric Gobet, Fabrice P. A. David, Florian Atger, Eva Martin, Nicholas E. Phillips, Aline Charpagne, Meltem Weger, Felix Naef, and Frédéric Gachon. 2021. “Systematic Analysis of Differential Rhythmic Liver Gene Expression Mediated by the Circadian Clock and Feeding Rhythms.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118 (3): e2015803118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015803118.